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Master the 7 Basic Principles & Elements of Interior Design

Updated: May 21

Interior design shapes places to evoke feelings and satisfy functional needs through a harmonious fusion of art and science. The core features and concepts are followed by designers to produce visually appealing and practical interiors. Anyone who wants to design rooms that are both modern and practical must grasp these fundamentals. Now let's explore the elements of interior design that underpin interior design.

Texture: Adding Dimension

First things first, the texture shouldn’t be confused with the pattern. Texture is how an object feels. To simplify it, the texture is how the element legit feels in your hand upon touching (physical texture), or the sense it offers when you observe it (visual texture). Let us give you a clear idea, you might look at a surface and describe it as ‘vintage’ or ‘weathered’ without touching it. Texture adds depth and tactility to surfaces, developing visual interest. What results in the overall sensory experience is the blend of distinct textures. A texture boosts the character of a space through feels like soft, glossy, smooth, or rough.


Elements of Interior Design


Patterns are an accumulation of lines and forms across the residence. From patterned flooring to walls, to ceilings, you can choose anything and everything. Interior design basics state that patterns instantly add interest and excitement to a specific room. Adding patterns to your home instantly enhances the overall vibe into an energetic one. However, the principles of interior design advise to not overdo it otherwise it would create an erratic appearance. 


Since lines direct the eye through a space, they are essential to interior design. They can be curved, diagonal, vertical, or horizontal, which affects how the design is perceived as a whole. Whether they are found in the lines of ornamental pieces, architectural details, or furniture, lines help a place flow and feel cohesive. To balance decoration, you can use horizontal lines to develop a sense of security and peace but not overdo it. For a spirited and beautiful appearance, vertical lines can be painted upward to the ceiling, although overdoing it will undoubtedly make it suffocated. Lastly, dynamic lines represented through angular, zigzag, or curved lines can totally spruce up the space, if you are aiming for something unique. 

emphasis in interior design


Why do you always look for bright light before taking a photo? This is because vibrance tends to deliver better results. Bad lighting can instantly ravage an otherwise amazing image. Similarly, the interior concept teaches that bad lighting in a space can also result in a bleak ambiance. One should always opt for premium lighting, and people these days are making more ways for natural lighting to let in. 

Not only is lighting a functional requirement, but it's also a design component that greatly influences a space's atmosphere. Placement, intensity, and combination of artificial and natural light sources are all factors in good lighting design. A room's overall aesthetics can be improved, focus areas can be highlighted, and visual interest can be created with lighting.


The structure and shape of an object in space are referred to as its form. It includes everything, from the shape of furniture to a room's architectural elements. Form comprehension and manipulation enable designers to infuse a space with visual interest and harmony. To create a design that is harmonious and unified, it is essential to balance various forms.

simple hall design


Even in a simple hall design, colours play a significant role in determining the overall appearance. Colours are not merely for aesthetic purposes, they possess immense impact in modifying the space’s mood and complete ambience. To explain this, let us take the example of the colour red, most people relate this colour with passion and intensity. On the other hand, cool colours, namely, blue and green, are perceived as peaceful or calm ones. And, yellow in colour psychology is related to exude a feeling of happiness and optimism. 

Therefore, when you are placing emphasis in interior design, probe deeper into your desire and personality alongside the type of room you are envisioning. Additionally, colours also have the power to make your room appear larger as well as smaller than it actually is. For instance, vibrant ones like white ought to make your room wider, on the other hand, black shade will make your room appear compact.   


What is even an interior design without the presence of space? Space, probably the most vital of all fundamentals of interior design, forms the soul of literally every design space. As we talk about spaces, there are two kinds: 2D space that accounts for the length and width of a room, and 3D space that covers the height as well. For example, if you are considering positioning a rug or carpet or even a painting, you would mostly consider the 2D space. But, if it is about adding a dressing table or chest of drawers, you would need to consider the height as well.  

Understanding the aforementioned concepts and features is an art form in the field of interior design that turns spaces into unique representations of functionality and style. It becomes clear as we work through the principles of interior design that every component is a brushstroke that adds to the canvas of a well-designed space.

Studio Interplay is a shining example of creativity and innovation for people looking for the know-how to realise their design concepts. Providing excellent interior design services in Gurgaon, Studio Interplay is among the leading interior design firms and skillfully incorporates these ideas into its designs. With a dedication to quality and an acute awareness of the subtleties of design, Studio Interplay crafts interiors that capture the individuality and way of life of its clients while still being aesthetically beautiful. Studio Interplay goes above and beyond the call of duty in each project, giving rooms a unique charm that makes them stand out.

FAQ - Element & Principles of Design In Interior Design

1. Why is interior design important?

Interior design is important because it improves a space's appearance and use, which affects the ambience in the room. Well-considered design decisions can enhance well-being, showcase individual style, and maximise space utilisation. Interior design is essential for creating surroundings that are aesthetically pleasing, cosy, and compatible with the needs and preferences of the occupants, whether they are in residential or business areas.

2. What are the Basic Concepts of Interior Design?

3. How Can I Achieve Balance in Interior Design for my home?

4. What are some common mistakes to avoid when designing an interior space?

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